Schist, abyssal rock and hypabyssal rock
The movement of the tectonic plates created rift valleys in the ancient continent around 2,500 years ago. Over hundreds of millions of years, they opened into an ocean, which covered central Finland and part of what is now the Rokua Geopark area. Around 2,000 million years ago the ocean was sealed off when the tectonic plates collided, and a string of high mountains rose up along the line of the collision. The collision squeezed the rock into numerous folds and even partly melted the rock beneath a deep mountain range. These events were recorded in the form of the different kinds of rocks in the bedrock and in the structures of the bedrock in Rokua Geopark.
Molten rock from the depths of the Earth’s crust gushed through the rift valley and solidified into hypabyssal rock in the volcanic channels. This can be seen as dark, greenish lenses mixed with other types of rock in the rock face in the Lake Oulujärvi hiking area. Stand on top of this kind of rock and you can imagine you are standing on top of a prehistoric volcano!
When the tectonic plates collided, the sedimentation from the sea created schist and metamorphic greywacke. Deep under the mountain range, molten rock solidified slowly to form abyssal rock such as granite. Shale and metamorphic greywacke can be seen at Isterinkoski in Muhos and Ahmaskoski in the Oulujoki River. Granite can be seen at Liimanninkoski in Muhos, on the rocky banks of the Oulujoki River on the Lemmenpolku trail, and at the erratic boulder in Väätäjänniemi in Vaala.