Rokua Geopark consists of three significant landscape units, which have originated over time on top of ancient bedrock shaped by the Ice Age. In the north, the landscape is dominated by the River Oulu Valley with its fields and forests; in the central parts of the area is the lichen-rich Rokua esker and dune area; and in the southeast is the large expanse of Lake Oulu with its diverse shores and islands.
In the area is located the Rokua National Park (8 km2), which was founded in 1956 to protect the area’s sensitive barren heaths. The National Park and other state-owned land areas located in Rokua are managed and maintained by Metsähallitus(the Finnish Forest and Park Service). Most of the Rokua esker and dune area belongs to the European Union’s Natura 2000 protection programme. Private protection areas have also been established in the area.